Day 1 :
Tianjin University, China
Keynote: Mechanisms and potential of terrestrial phytolith carbon sequestration: A case study of China
Time : 09:30-10:00
Zhaoliang Song is a Professor of Institute of the Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, China. He has completed his PhD from Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interests include carbon sequestration from enhanced mineral weathering, coupled biogeochemical cycles of carbon and silicon, phytolith carbon sequestration, phytolith geochemistry, phytolith and geochemical record of climate change. As a first and/or corresponding author, he has published 27 papers in SCI journals (Average IF=3.6) including 9 papers published in international top SCI journals such as Global Change Biology (IF=8.444) and Earth-Science Reviews (IF=6.991) and has been selected as experts to review papers for many SCI journals such as Plant and Soil, Scientific Reports, Functional Ecology, Science of the Total Environment, European Journal of Soil Science.
Silicon (Si), the second abundant element on the Earth’s surface, is usually coupled with global biogeochemical carbon (C) cycle at different time-scales, and plays an important role in regulating the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Bio-available Si is absorbed by plant root and deposited within plant tissues to form phytoliths (opal-A, SiO2-nH2O) during the plant growth. A small percentage of organic carbon (0.2-5.8%) could be occluded within phytoliths (PhytOC). PhytOC is relatively stable and may be preserved in soils or sediments for many hundreds to thousands of years due to their chemical compositions, morphology and local environment conditions. Recently, the occlusion of carbon within phytoliths is considered to be one of the key important global biogeochemical C sequestration mechanisms. Here we review recent advances about the study of phytolith C sequestration and estimate the potential of phytolith C sequestration in China. This work indicates that the production rates of PhytOC among different terrestrial ecosystems in China decrease in the following order: croplands>forests>grasslands. In addition, active management measures, including mulching organic manures, fertilizing silicon, amending rock powder, cultivating Si-accumulating plants and partial harvesting of plants to maximize silicon supply and above-ground net primary production, have a significant potential to promote the phytolith C sink in China and the rest of the world. However, further studies are need to demonstrate the cost of these management measures, the exact mechanisms involved and the magnitude of C sequestration through phytoliths among various terrestrial ecosystems, and to make the C sequestration of phytoliths as one of the global important mechanisms of biogeochemical C sequestration.
Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources, China
Time : 10:00-10:30
Shengqing Xiong is a senior Geophysicist and Professor. His research interests are in aero geophysics and remote sensing. Presently, he is the chief geoscientist at the Aero Geophysical Survey & Remote Sensing Center for Land & Resources, China.
Using the most advanced method of processing and mapping, the compilation of 1:1000000 series of China land aeromagnetic map has provided high quality fundamental materials of regional geophysics for the research of regional geological structures in our country, which innovates a lot upon mapping of regional aeromagnetic and geological structures, data processing technology, interpretation method and recognition of geological structures etc, also promotes the progress of scientific and technology in related field. Based on about 120000 depth data of magnetic body calculated by surveyed magnetic materials, the depth map of China land magnetic basement was compiled. We carried out research on characteristic of China land rugged magnetic basement, especially the distribution of depression and uplift, and the depth and current status of the sedimentary cover layer, which provided reference materials for the study of regional structures and prognosis of oil-gas exploration target area in China. Depending on the magnetic data, and combining the comprehensive research of gravity, geology and remote sensing data etc, we compiled distribution map of 1:2500000 China land fault and magnetic rocks, regional structure map (fig1) and series of interpretation map of geological structures, and then established the framework of fault structures; found many new faults; delineated concealed and half concealed magnetic rock body; characterized regional structural unit and its boundary; clearly illustrated the characteristics of basal lithofacies structure; evaluated the stability of basement; discussed the characteristics of deep magnetic structure and depth of magnetic layer. These maps will give blueprint for the work of geosciences and benefit a lot to the study of framework. The first aeromagnetic-geological structure maps of continental China, has significantly important reference value for the analysis of regional structures, geological background of oil-gas and mineral resources formation, the evaluation of geological environment, geological disaster and development of geosciences theory.
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Time : 10:30-11:00
Sayyad Zahid Qamar is currently associated with the Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. He has worked both as a University Academician and a Researcher, and as a Field Engineer (mechanical), during his twenty-five years of professional service. His main research areas are applied materials and manufacturing; applied mechanics and design; reliability engineering; and engineering education. He has worked on different funded projects in excess of 4 million US dollars. He is the author of one research monograph (book), two book chapters, over 120 publications in refereed international journals and conferences and 31 technical reports. He has also edited two technical book volumes and is serving on the Editorial Boards of various well-known research journals. He has conducted experimental, numerical, analytical and stochastic studies in the areas of swelling and inert elastomers; solid expandable tubulars; metal forming process, product, and tooling.
Economically feasible extraction of oil and gas is becoming more and more challenging, especially from old and difficult reservoirs. Some major hurdles are, reducing cost and increasing efficiency of well completion operations; isolation of water-producing and other undesirable zones; successful production from mature reservoirs; reworking of abandoned wells; etc. In the last couple of decades, Solid Expandable Tubular (SET) technology has been able to overcome some of these obstacles. SET applications involve in-situ expansion of a tubular by propagating a conical mandrel through it, achieved by hydraulic push or mechanical pull. Integrity of well structure is directly dependent on factors such as burst and collapse strength of the tubular after expansion. In collaboration with the national petroleum development industry, a full-scale expansion test rig has been designed, fabricated and commissioned at Sultan Qaboos University. Real-time experimental data are recorded during expansion of actual petroleum tubulars under various field conditions. Mechanical testing and microscopic analysis is also carried out for pre- and post-expansion material characterization. Some of the studies carried out with the help of this facility are design, fabrication and commissioning of SET test rig, experimental and numerical simulation of in-situ tube expansion, effect of cold work on mechanical properties of expandable tubulars, optimum mandrel configuration for efficient down-hole tube expansion, estimation of burst and collapse strengths of expandable tubulars, experimental and finite-element comparison of advanced high-strength steels as tubular materials, analytical model for stick-slip phenomenon in solid tubular expansion, use of solid expandable tubulars in cased and open holes-comparison between aluminum and steel, solid tubular expansion in horizontal wells, etc.