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5th International Conference on Geological and Environmental Sustainability, will be organized around the theme “An Insight into Solid Earth & Soil materials for futuristic advancements”
Geology Congress 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Geology Congress 2018
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Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor. It involves geophysical, geochemical, sediment logical and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal zone. Marine geology has strong ties to physical oceanography and is focused on the physical, biological and chemical interactions that characterize earth surface environments. Carbonate geology, coastal geology, ground water shed hydrology, paleoclimatology, marine biogeochemistry, and sedimentology/stratigraphy. Emphasis on near shore processes, coastal sedimentation and erosion sedimentation control, remote sensing of environment and reefs and carbonate petrology and petrography to derive clues to past environmental changes as well as post-depositional geochemical changes to island lime stones. Marine Sedimentary Environment focused on micropaleontology, geo biology, pale-oceanography and paleoclimatology, organic and inorganic isotope biogeochemistry, marine minerals, carbonate sedimentology and the physical properties of sediments and crustal rocks. The scope of Marine Science Conferences is to create a platform for strong exchange of the recent advancement and technologies towards marine oceanography and Marine biology.
- Track 2-1 Different branches of Geology
- Track 2-2 Fundamentals of Geology
- Track 2-3 Permeability of soil
- Track 2-4Soil porosity and soil water properties
- Track 2-5 Fractal fragmentation
The series of glitches that geotechnical engineers must face is increasing in complexity and scope. Often, complexity arises from the interaction between the soil and the environment. To deal with this type of problem, the classical soil mechanics formulation is progressively generalised in order to incorporate the effects of new phenomena and new variables on soil behaviour. Recent advances in unsaturated soil mechanics are presented first: it is shown that they provide a consistent framework for understanding the engineering behaviour of unsaturated soils, and the effects of suction and moisture changes.
Building on those developments, soil behaviour is further explored by considering thermal effects for two opposite cases: high temperatures, associated with the problem of storage and disposal of high-level radioactive waste; and low temperatures in problems of freezing ground. Finally, the lecture examines some issues related to chemical effects on soils and rocks, focusing in part on the subject of tunnelling in sulphate-bearing rocks. In each case new environmental variables are identified, enhanced theoretical formulations are established, and new or extended constitutive laws are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on mechanical constitutive equations, as they are especially important in geotechnical engineering. The lecture includes summary accounts of a number of case histories that illustrate the relevance and implications of the developments described for geotechnical engineering practice.
- Track 3-1Interaction of soil physical process and biological factors
- Track 3-2 Genotype and soil nutrient environment
- Track 3-3 Development of soil and environment
- Track 3-4Soil mechanism formulations
- Track 3-5 Plant soil environment interactions
A finite-element method is used to analyse the slope stability problem and to examine the effect of soil militancy on the stability of slopes. It is found that soil dilatancy has a significant effect on the stability of slopes, and the higher values of dilation angle lead to larger stability numbers. Therefore, the stability numbers obtained from limit analyses (lower/upper bound solutions) are not conservative for granular soils that exhibit a stretching angle smaller than a soil's friction angle.
The factor of safety equations are written in the same form, knowing whether moment and (or) force equilibrium is explicitly satisfied. The normal force equation is of the same form for all methods with the exception of the conventional method. The method of handling the inter slice forces differentiates the normal force equations. A new derivation for the Morgenstern–Price method is presented and is called the 'best-fit regression' solution. It involves the independent solution of the force and moment equilibrium factors of safety for various values of λ. The best-fit regression solution gives the same factor of safety as the 'Newton–Rap son' solution.
- Track 4-1 Three dimensional slope stability analysis method
- Track 4-2Numerical stability analysis method
- Track 4-3 Significance of soil militancy in slope stability analysis
- Track 4-4Use of computers for stability analysis methods
- Track 4-5Volume change characteristics of partially saturated soils
Mining geology is an applied science which chains the principles of economic geology and mining engineering to the development of a defined mineral resource. Mining geologist and engineers work to develop an identified ore deposit to economically extract the ore.
A mineral resource is a concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest in or on the earth’s crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. Mineral resources are further sub-divided, in order of increasing geological confidence, into inferred, indicated and measured categories. Inferred mineral resource is the part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes which may be of limited or indefinite quality and reliability.
- Track 5-1Classification of mineral resources
- Track 5-2Types of mining
- Track 5-3Use, characteristics and exploitation of minerals
- Track 5-4Life cycle of mineral deposit
- Track 5-5Physical properties of minerals
Civil engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, large buildings, airports, ports, subways, dams, mines and other large scale developments. For a civil engineering project to be successful, the engineers must understand the land upon which the project rests. Geologists study the land to determine whether it is stable enough to support the proposed project. They also study water patterns to determine if a particular site is prone to flooding. Some civil engineers use geologist to examine rocks for important metals, oil, natural gas and ground water.
The value of geology in mining has long been known but its use in civil engineering has been recognized only in comparatively recent years. Geology provides a systematic knowledge of construction material, its occurrence, composition, durability and other properties. Example of such construction materials is building stones, road metal, clay, limestone and laterite. The knowledge of the geological work of natural agencies such as water, wind, ice and helps in planning and carrying out major civil engineering works. For example the knowledge of erosion, transportation and deposition helps greatly in solving the expensive problems of river control, coastal and harbour work and soil conservation. Geology & Soil Science is the study of the Earth and its neighbours in space. It is an exciting science with many interesting and practical applications. Many different sciences are used to learn about the earth, however, the four basic areas of Earth science study are geology, meteorology, oceanography and astronomy.
- Track 6-1Natural Hazards Assessments
- Track 6-2Types of rock formation
- Track 6-3Construction of dams, tunnels, highways etc.,
- Track 6-4Water resource development
- Track 6-5Assessment of soil conditions
Predictions of soil are observed and classified, and appraisals are made between predicted performance and measured performance for eight constructed facilities. Although there are many techniques for predicting internal stresses, deformations and stability for a geotechnical facility, the application of these techniques has confines. The major limitations are the difficulty of determining fully and accurately the field situation and the mechanisms which will occur, and the selection of soil parameters to use with prediction methods. The greatest need appears to be for devices and techniques to determine, in situ and continuously with depth, fundamental subsoil properties, such as stress, strength and stress-strain modulus. New concepts and methods for modelling the natural unpredictability of soil properties are presented and illustrated. The proposed technique of modelling the numerical character of soil profiles serves a dual function: It provides a format for enumerating the information are congregated during site investigation and testing, about the subsurface conditions at a site; and it provides the basis for predicting performance and for quantifying the reliability of performance predictions. Probabilistic soil profiles are characterized, first, by best estimates of layer depths and of pertinent engineering properties; and secondly, by the coefficient of variation and the correlation scales for the contour parameters of interest. Methodology is developed for dealing with problems that can be verbalized in terms of extremes of medians of soil properties. The glitches of limit equilibrium slope stability and differential settlement prediction fall into this category.
- Track 7-1Soil and soil mapping
- Track 7-2Soil improvement by vacuum preloading method
- Track 7-3Selection of soil parameters
- Track 7-4Influences of strains in soil mechanism
- Track 7-5Probabilistic modeling of soil profiles
- Track 7-6 Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere
An operative theory of rights, property and property rights is accessible with the intent of informing economic analysis and public debate about natural resource and environmental problems. Soil erosion by water is a major environmental problem in the developing countries in particular. It has economic, social and environmental implication due to both on-site and off-site effects. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of soil erosion by water on-site and off-site on agriculture productivity at farm level using a combination between environmental and economic approaches and applied in a watershed. The approach proposed in this study is helpful for the decision makers to plan suitable strategies and measures to preserve water and soil resources. Indeed, the environmental method is useful to recognize vulnerable areas with mapping soil erosion risk. In addition, the economic value of soil erosion can be used by the verdict maker to prioritize areas of soil conservation. Economic evaluation of public and private stashes in the conservation and development of land is the process by which all costs and all benefits.
- Track 8-1Evaluation of soil moisture sensor under intelligent irrigation
- Track 8-2Methods of economic evaluation of soil
- Track 8-3Prevention of soil erosion
- Track 8-4Evaluation of soil aquifer treatment using primary effluent
- Track 8-5Rapid and economical evaluation of concrete tunnel linings with impulse response
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a substance pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations. Petroleum reservoirs are broadly classified as conventional and unconventional reservoirs. In case of conventional reservoirs, the naturally occurring hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or natural gas, are trapped by overlying rock formations with lower permeability. While in unconventional reservoirs the rock have high porosity and low permeability which keeps the hydrocarbons trapped in place, therefore not requiring a cap rock. Reservoirs are found using hydrocarbon exploration method. Gas reservoir, in geology and natural gas production, a naturally occurring stage area, characteristically a folded rock formation such as an anticline that traps and holds natural gas and it has to be capped by impervious rock in order to form an effective seal that prevents the gas from escaping upward or laterally.
An oil and gas reservoir is a formation of rock in which oil and natural gas has accumulated within. The oil and gas collect in the small, connected pore spaces of rock and are sealed below ground surface by an impermeable layer of Rock.
- Track 9-1Geological condition of shale gas accumulation
- Track 9-2Geologic aspects of tight gas reservoirs
- Track 9-3Gas hydrates of geological perspective
- Track 9-4Petroleum formation and occurrence
- Track 9-5Evaluation of shale gas systems
This provides particulars on Willmar International’s conservation policies, practices, and initiatives in and around its oil-palm concessions in Asia and Africa. It includes an overview of the company’s pledge to conservation and the challenges faced, as well as case studies on its research collaborations and partnerships with government, conservation organizations, and sanctuaries. Soil biodiversity refers to the relationship of soil biodiversity and to aspects of the soil that can be managed in relation to biodiversity. Soil biodiversity relates to some catchment management considerations.
It is not astonishing that soil management has a direct effect on biodiversity. This includes practices that influence soil volume, structure, biological, and chemical characteristics, and whether soil exhibits adverse effects such as reduced fertility, soil acidification. This section touches on selected soil factors that may be affected by soil management, and the according effect they can have on biodiversity. Soil structure describes the arrangement of the solid parts of the soil and of the pore space located between them. It is determined by how individual soil granules clump, bind together, and aggregate, resulting in the arrangement of soil pores between them. Soil structure has a major influence on water and air movement, biological activity, root growth and seedling appearance.
- Track 10-1 Ecological role of biodiversity in agrology system
- Track 10-2 Soil and water conservation biodiversity
- Track 10-3 Impacts of increased biodiversity
- Track 10-4Detriments to biodiversity through organic farming
- Track 10-5 Types of soil conservation
Structural Geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories. The primary goal of structural geology is to use measurements of present-day rock geometries to uncover information about the history of deformation in the rocks, and ultimately, to understand the stress field that resulted in the observed strain and geometries. Structural geology is a critical part of engineering geology, which is concerned with the physical and mechanical properties of natural rocks. Structural fabrics and defects such as faults, folds, foliations and joints are internal weaknesses of rocks which may affect the stability of human engineered structures such as dams, road cuts, open pit mines and underground mines or road tunnels Environmental geologists and hydro geologists need to apply the tenets of structural geology to understand how geologic sites impact (or are impacted by) ground water flow and penetration. For instance, a hydro geologist may need to determine if seepage of toxic substances from waste dumps is occurring in a residential area or if salty water is seeping into an aquifer. Plate tectonics is a theory developed during the 1960s which describes the movement of continents by way of the separation and collision of crustal plates. It is in a sense structural geology on a planet scale, and is used throughout structural geology as a framework to analyse and understand global, regional, and local scale features.
- Track 11-1Orientation of geological features
- Track 11-2Tectonic forces and rock behavior
- Track 11-3 Geological features of crustal rocks
- Track 11-4 Application of structural geology
- Track 11-5 Use of structural geology in modern development
Soil conservation is the preventing of soil loss from erosion or reduced fertility caused by over usage, acidification, salinization or other chemical soil contamination. Slash-and-burn and other unsustainable methods of subsistence farming are practiced in some lesser developed areas. A sequel to the deforestation is typically large scale erosion, loss of soil nutrients and sometimes total desertification. Techniques for improved soil conservation include crop rotation, cover crops, conservation tillage and planted windbreaks and affect both erosion and fertility. When plants, especially trees, die, they decay and become part of the soil. Code 330 defines standard methods recommended by the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Farmers have practiced soil conservation for millennia.
The techniques can be applied for respecting changes in air and water quality; noise nuisance; health care; risk; recorded heritage; cultural assets; habitats; landscape and so on. The resulting valuations can be used for a number of purposes including, but not limited to, demonstrating the economic value of environmental and cultural assets; cost-benefit analysis; setting urgencies for environmental policy. Guidelines for preservative treatment of bamboos and a list of preservatives recommended for treatment of bamboos are provided in the appendices.
The methods for studying insects give details of collecting devices, traps, preserving and identifying specimens, collecting pollen from insects and their nests, and morphological measurements; there is a detailed section on studies of foraging behaviour.
- Track 12-1 Bamboo preservation techniques
- Track 12-2 Field preservation techniques for the analysis of stable carbon
- Track 12-3 Preservation of agricultural lands
- Track 12-4 Preservation of aliphatic macromolecules in soil hum ins
- Track 12-5 Techniques for determining organic compounds
A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, querying, analysing, and displaying geospatial data. Geospatial data describe both the location and characteristics of spatial features. A GIS comprises the components of hardware, software, data, people, and organization. Prompted by the introduction of PCs and graphical user interfaces, GIS flourished in the 1980s. Now GIS is a crucial tool in resource management, emergency planning, crime analysis, public health, land records management, precision farming, and many other fields. Geospatial data are spatially referenced and can be either vector or raster.
Common GIS operations include data acquisition, data management, data demand, vector data analysis, raster data analysis, and data display. An important tendency is the integration of desktop GIS, web GIS, and mobile technology, which has already led to the development of location-based services, collaborative web-mapping, and volunteered geographic information. Simple statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. It aimed at the evaluation of the hazard of soil erosion and its verification at Bourn, Korea, using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. Precipitation, topographic, soil, and land use data were collected, processed, and constructed into a spatial database using GIS and remote sensing data. Areas that had suffered soil erosion were analysed and mapped using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).
- Track 13-1 Geological development of an area
- Track 13-2 Remote sensing and geographic information on system data integration
- Track 13-3 Traffic flow using the geographic information system
- Track 13-4 Soil erosion assessments
- Track 13-5 Geographic information system for targeting nonpoint-source agricultural pollution
An ecosystem service is a assistance to society derived from a healthy ecosystem property or process. Robust soil quality leads to more water available for plant roots and cleaner water in streams and lakes. Enhanced soil biological activity turns organic wastes into valuable nutrients and degrades toxic elements. Carbon stored in soil regulates the climate by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Plant and animal biodiversity are dependent upon soil biodiversity. Ecosystem services are a way of putting a value on biodiversity by looking at what it does and how we value the function that the soil performs. These produce a range of services which are essential to our health. To provide a framework of how ecosystems provide for human lives the term 'Ecosystem Approach' and 'Ecosystem Services' are being used. The 'Ecosystem Approach' is to assist decision makers to take full account of ecological systems and their associated biodiversity. 'Ecosystem Services' describe which the process and functions, provided by the natural world.Over the last few years, considerable attention has been devoted in the scientific literature and in the media to the concept of “ecosystem” services of soils. The monetary valuation of these services, demanded by many governments and international agencies, is often depicted as a necessary condition for the preservation of the natural capital that soils represent. This focus on soil services is framed in the context of a general interest in ecosystem services that already started in 1997, and took off in earnest after 2005.
- Track 14-1 Soil in natural ecosystem
- Track 14-2 Mapping ecosystem services for policy support and decision making
- Track 14-3 Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services
- Track 14-4Ecosystem services in urban areas
- Track 14-5 Drained residual strength of cohesive soils
A geotechnical investigation will include surface exploration and subsurface exploration of a site. Sometimes, geophysical methods are used to obtain data about sites. Subsurface exploration usually involves soil sampling and laboratory tests of the soil samples retrieved. Site investigation or Soil explorations are done for obtaining the information about subsurface conditions at the site of proposed construction. Soil exploration consists of determining the profile of the natural soil deposits at the site, taking the soil samples and determining the engineering properties of soil. It also includes in-situ testing of soil. Soil is used as: Construction material as, for example, in the construction of dams, pavements, building etc., Supporting material (Foundation) for carrying the loads of the super-structure through their foundations.The field and laboratory investigations required to obtain the necessary data for the soils for proper design and successful construction of any structure at the site are collectively called soil exploration. The soil behaviour of the soil or the properties of the soil for design of the foundation are investigated. So, you should know what the property of a particular site where this foundation has to be constructed, so in that way you have to go for the field test as well as the laboratory test.
- Track 15-1 Soil exploration and resource acquisition by plant root
- Track 15-2 Modeling applicability of fractal analysis to efficiency of soil exploration by roots
- Track 15-3 Benefits of increased soil exploration on by wheat roots
- Track 15-4 Dynamics of soil exploration
It deals with several features of the assessment of hazard and risk of land sliding. In modern years the interest in this topic has increased greatly and there are many technical papers dealing with this subject in the literature. This article presents a summary review and a classification of the main approaches that have been developed world-wide. The first step is the part between qualitative and quantitative methods. The first group is mainly based on the site-specific experience of experts with the susceptibility/hazard determined directly in the field or by combining different index maps. The approaches of the second group are formally more rigorous. It is possible to distinguish between statistical analyses (bivariate or multivariate) and deterministic methods that involve the analysis of specific sites or slopes based on geo-engineering models. Such analyses can be deterministic or probabilistic. Among the quantitative methods discussed is the Neural Networks approach which has only recently been applied to engineering geology problems. Finally several considerations concerning the concept of acceptable risk and risk management are presented. The seismic hazard is defines as the probabilistic measure of ground shaking associated to reappearance of earthquakes. Seismic hazard maps depicts the stages of chosen ground motions that likely will not, be exceeds in specified exposure times.
- Track 16-1 Evaluation of geological hazards
- Track 16-2 Evaluation of geological conditions
- Track 16-3 Probabilistic landslides assessment at basin scale
- Track 16-4 Assessing risk and reducing disaster
- Track 16-5 Development of GIS based geological hazard information system
The rock mechanics is the theoretical and smears science of mechanical behaviour of rock and rock mass, it is that branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock and rock masses to force field of their physical environment. The subject of engineering rock mechanics, as applied in mining engineering practice. The discipline is closely related to the main streams of classical mechanics and continuum mechanics.
The module provides an overview of constitutive modelling in geotechnical engineering. Soils are complex particulate materials whose behaviour is highly non-linear and dependent on the stress state of the soil. As a result, simple calculations are insufficient to represent a soil's response to loading, and a more representative analysis (especially where accurate displacements need to be known) is required through developing a constitutive model. This module will discuss the features of constitutive models, compare them to real soil behaviour, and apply them to geotechnical structures, using a combination of case studies and applied examples. Unit Aims at to describe and discuss constitutive modelling in comparison with other modelling techniques and to discuss and analysis different constitutive models in order to select the most appropriate model for a given problem .To assess soil data and determine the required parameters for a reasonable constitutive model.
- Track 17-1 Initial and final settlement of soil
- Track 17-2 Identification of soil moisture defects
- Track 17-3 Soil fertility and variables
- Track 17-4 Stress – strain behavior of soil and rock
- Track 17-5 Mechanical behavior of soils
Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. It is a multidisciplinary field that is closely related to engineering geology and, to a lesser extent, to environmental geography. Each of these fields involves the study of the interaction of humans with the geologic environment, including the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and to some extent the atmosphere. In other words, environmental geology is the application of geological information to solve conflicts, minimizing possible adverse environmental degradation or maximizing possible advantageous condition resulting from the use of natural and modified environment. Environmental geology includes managing geological and hydrogeological resources such as fossil fuels, minerals, water (surface and ground water), and land use. This knowledge of the past is important because it helps them to get a better idea of what types of geologic events repeat themselves, with what frequency they might occur, and what types of damage occurred because of those events. This is different than what a palaeontologist (someone who studies fossils) would do, because environmental geologists are concerned with how the past is relating to the present.
The aim of geology meetings is to provide an important forum to enhance regional and international co-operation; and present a forum for students, young scientists and professionals to listen, interact and develop contacts with international delegates and open prospects for future collaborative research, and even employment
- Track 18-1 Geological features of world
- Track 18-2 Geologic materials
- Track 18-3 Geological consideration of dams
- Track 18-4 Consequences for statistical treatment of geochemical
- Track 18-5 Proxy method of estimating increased pollution of environmental system
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels. It refers to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration). Petroleum geology is principally concerned with the evaluation of seven key elements in sedimentary basins: They are source, Reservoir, seal, Trap, Timing, Maturation Migration. Oil (shown in red) accumulates against the seal, to the depth of the base of the seal. Any further oil migrating in from the source will escape to the surface and seep. A fold in geology is when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of deformation by pressures from faults and other forces of nature. There are many ways the field of Geology contributes to the Petroleum Industry. The varied disciplines of Geology explore the history of the Earth itself in hopes of understanding in greater detail where oil comes from and where more oil might be found, as well as the best ways to retrieve oil and utilize it once it has been retrieved. It is the application of geology (the study of rocks) to the exploration for and production of oil and gas. Geology itself is strongly based on chemistry, physics and biology, involving the application of essentially abstract concepts to data. In the past these data were basically observational and subjective. Petroleum geology, in particular still on value judgments based on experience and an assessment of validity among the data presented. Exploration had advanced over the years as various geological techniques were developed.
- Track 19-1 Provincial and petroleum geology
- Track 19-2 Elements of petroleum geology
- Track 19-3 Biological makers in fossil fuel production
- Track 19-4 Geological controls on hydrocarbon distribution
- Track 19-5 Low-permeability oil field development and pressure sensitive effects
Remote sensing of Environment serves the remote sensing community with the publication of results on theory, science, applications and technology of remote sensing of Earth resources and environment. Thoroughly interdisciplinary, this is a terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric sensing. Remote sensing data provide a synoptic view of many environmental trends. Remotely sensed imagery can provide both snapshots and data over that time address environmental issues at global, regional and national scales. It can provide these in consistent formats and in ways that complement national-level data collection efforts, which are often under-resourced and inconsistent from country to country. Remote sensing can contribute to global assessments in support of MEA’s. Remote sensing provides timely information on a large and growing number of environmental issues such as land-use/land-cover change, carbon-monoxide plumes, and the carbon density of ecosystems, which can significantly contribute to global environmental assessment in support of MEAs (e.g., the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment).
- Track 20-1 Impact factor of remote sensing of environment
- Track 20-2 Applications of remote sensing
- Track 20-3 Remote sensing of ecology
- Track 20-4 Development of a wireless sensor network for monitoring volcanic activity
- Track 20-5 Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture in semi-arid environment
The geotechnical behaviour of natural soils and weak rocks suggest that the shear stiffness controlling wave propagation in near-surface materials will be similar to those which geotechnical engineers wish to measure, and use to calculate movements of the ground around engineering structures. Field seismic techniques which have been found suitable for stiffness determination are reviewed. The benefits of using geophysical methods, as compared with the use of routine geotechnical techniques, are discussed. These techniques allow the study of the spatial and temporal variations of geological structures. Until recently, geophysical techniques have been relatively little used for the reconnaissance of landslides for at least two main reasons. The first one is that geophysical methods provide images in terms of physical parameters, which are not directly linked to the geological and mechanical properties required by geologists and engineers. The second reason shown through this study probably comes from a tendency among a part of the geophysicists to overestimate the quality and reliability of the results. A comprehensive site investigation was performed offshore the island of Chek-Lap Kok as part of the civil engineering design studies for the proposed replacement airport at Hong Kong, The program included conventional drilling and sampling carried out from floating craft, as well as extensive in situ testing, including piezocone penetration, field vane shear, and permeability tests. The results of the field and laboratory tests are synthesized to develop engineering properties appropriate for reclamation design. Correlations between the piezocone data and field vane shear tests are presented, as well as correlations of compressibility parameters with index properties. Normalized strength parameters for the two marine clays are also presented.
- Track 21-1 Geophysical investigation of landslides
- Track 21-2 Geo-technical stiffness parameters
- Track 21-3 Ground penetration radar
- Track 21-4 Soil investigation methods
- Track 21-5 Assessing the viability of using vertical drains