Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th International Conference on Geology and Geoscience Dubai, UAE.

Day 2 :

  • Track 4: Engineering Geology Track 6: Geology and Civil Engineering Track 7: Exploration Geophysics Track 8: Mining Geology Track 9: Economic Geology Track 12: Remote Sensing and GIS

Session Introduction

Ibrahim M Metwally

Zagazig University, Egypt

Title: Failure of continental drift theory
Speaker
Biography:

Ibrahim M Metwally has his expertise in Geotechnical and Engineering Geological science in improving the concepts and theories. His model based on continuum mechanic and descriptive geometry in three-dimension creates new pathways for improving the understanding of earth creation and its first size and how continents and oceans formed. He has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration both in industrial and education sectors. He has outstanding productivity both as a Civil Engineering Consultant and as a Professor.

Abstract:

Wegener's theory of Continental Drift was formulated in the early 20th Century, and accepted worldwide by many scientists and philosophers. Tectonic plate theory followed the same approach.  However, these theories have great shortcomings and raise a lot of unanswered questions. No one denies the geometrical fit of some continental boundaries, but it is hard to accept the mechanism of drifting the Pangaea and the presence of that Pangaea surrounded by that huge ocean. The main problem in these theories is the limitation in the two-dimensional view, while reality is three dimensional one. However, Earth's continents were once connected forming the earth hard surface, but without any oceans or seas. This paper is devoted to prove that these theories are unrealistic ones. It also shows that there is no plate movement, neither convergent nor divergent. This paper handles the subject from the civil engineering point of view within the continuum mechanics framework. 

Ahmed Hosny

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt

Title: Crustal structure of Egypt and northern Red Sea region
Speaker
Biography:

Ahmed Hosny completed his PhD at the Trieste University, Italy and Post-doctoral studies from Penn State University, Geosciences department, USA. He is an Associate Professor at the Seismology Department, specialized in deep earth structures using seismic tomography, receiver functions and joint inversion methods. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer for many international journals, such as BSSA, ACTA Geophysica etc.

Abstract:

P-wave receiver functions from 26 stations in the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) have been modeled using the H-k stacking method and in a joint inversion method with Rayleigh wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure across Egypt and the northern Red Sea region. The new estimates of crustal structure, when combined with previous results, show that the rifted margins along the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba crustal thickness ranges from 25-30 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.77 and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.6 km/s. Beneath northern and central Egypt, including the Sinai Peninsula, crustal thickness ranges from 32 to 38 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.79 and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.5 km/sec. Beneath southern Egypt, crustal thickness ranges from 35-40 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.76 and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.7 km/s. In southern Egypt, the crust is also characterized by a 10-20 km thick mafic lower crust. These findings indicate that crust along the rifted margins of the northern Red Sea and Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba have been thinned by about 5 to 10 km. The thick mafic lower crust in southern Egypt can be attributed to suturing during the Neoproterozoic collision of east Gondwana against the Sahara metacraton. Overall, the structure of the crust in Egypt away from the northern Red Sea region is similar to the structure of Precambrian crust in many other parts of Africa.

Speaker
Biography:

Mohamed F Khalil is an Associated Professor of Applied Geophysics at the Department of Geological Sciences, Assiut University, Egypt. He has received his PhD in 1998 from University of Assiut. His research interests include geophysical methods and ground water in Egypt. Also, he is a research member in some projects of investigation and evaluation of the ground water and distillation and supervising on drilling and development of the ground water wells in some localities in Egypt.

Abstract:

Flash floods are severe disasters in terms of human lives loss and economical damages. However, it is a vital source of fresh water especially for wadi system and arid environments. Modelling tools are needed for an effective flash flood management. Due to the scarcity of gauged data, hydrological modeling is carried out using alternative data as remote sensing to simulate the flash floods at wadi system. The target study area is Wadi Qena, which considered as one of the most promising areas for development in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The adopted methodology was based on Hydro-BEAM (Hydrological River Basin Environmental Assessment Model) linked with several remote sensing data types as to overcome data limitation in wadi environments. Hydro-BEAM is a physical based distributed hydrological model. Transmission losses have been estimated using the empirical Walter equations. The simulation has been successfully carried out indicating that the proposed methodology can be used to predict the flash floods in Wadi Qena. The behaviors of flash floods have been depicted revealing that the warning time of flash floods is very short. The remote sensing data can be reasonably used to compensate measurements deficiency. Results interpretations revealed that Wadi Qena has a significant water resources where the estimated surface water that drained by the wadi outlet is equal to 71.7 million m3 for Jan-2010 and the total transmission losses is equal to 13.15 million m3. Therefore, such amount of water should be efficiently managed and utilized.

Vishavjeet Singh Goraya

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India

Title: The future of the geosciences
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The future of geosciences will be radically different than it was 100, 50, or even 5 years ago. We are on the cusp of new discoveries, techniques and ideas. Geoscientists are becoming well respected in the science and public communities as new challenges face us. The future of geosciences will involve research into renewable energy and the depleted water resources. The water crisis will also increase the need for medical geology research and will perhaps open up a new industry for this specific title. Geoscientists will be called to help find water on other planets or decipher the historical geology of a planet to see if it is habitable. These planetary geologists will also be used to set up lunar bases or develop local resources. Geoscientists will be educated in many disciplines to fully understand everything they are studying. As much as theory is important, classes in the geosciences will be aimed toward applicability and practical use. Dating techniques will improve so we can understand how fast one animal evolved, or how fast climate change can realistically take place. Geoscientists will be the experts and therefore must be more responsible with scientific evidence and the differences between truth and imagination. Finally, geosciences will depend on all encompassing ethical codes, meticulous documentation in the field and a better way to present confidence of a given topic.

Noor Al-Dousari

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait

Title: Economic value of Nitraria retusa in single, compound and complex Nabkhas
Speaker
Biography:

Noor Al-Dousari has obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Botany from Kuwait University. She started her research career at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and published more than 20 conference and journal papers. During the last six years she has taken intensive training courses on desert and coastal rehabilitation programs.

Abstract:

Arid regions are affected by many environmental challenges such as the absence of vegetation cover, lack of rain fall, increase wind erosion, which eventually increases sand and dust storm events. The upper surface of soil is vulnerable to land degradation causing the accumulation of sand around building, roads, and different man made infrastructure that cost the country tremendous amount of money yearly for mechanical sand removal. The cost of mechanical sand removal is 5.20 USD for 1 m3. Therefore, this study focuses on three different types of nabkhas namly; single plant, double plants and group of plants nabkhas. the physical and chemical properties of nabkha i.e. particle size, organic matter, moisture content, acidity, electrical conductivity were also covered. The volume of trapped sand accumulated around nabkhas are measured in cubic meters (m3), and converted to calculated cost of mechanical sand removal.  A single nabkha of Nitraria retusa, is capable of trapping mobile sand with a maximum of 21.9 m3 and an average of 2 m3. The equivalent cost of trapped sand in forming single nabkha is 10.4 USD. Hence, the efficiency of native plant species in trapping mobile sand reduces the cost of sand removal in the different forms of nabkhas. Therefore, Nitraria retusa as a dominant native plant in Kuwait represents valuable and efficient control measure for mobile sand and dust.